Historically, nonviolence training
was used extensively during the civil rights movement, in Gandhi's
campaigns in India against the British, and in recent years in
the struggles against nuclear technology, against U.S. policy
in Central America and Southern Africa and for the rights of farm
workers, women and people with AIDS, to name a few.
The purpose of training is for participants to form a common understanding of the use of nonviolence. It gives a forum to share ideas about nonviolence, oppression, fears and feelings. It allows people to meet and build solidarity with each other and provides an opportunity to form affinity groups. It is often used as preparation for action and gives people a chance to learn about an action, its tone, and legal ramifications. It helps people to decide whether or not they will participate in an action. Through role playing, people learn what to expect from police, officials, other people in the action and themselves.
Nonviolence training can range from several hours to several months. Most typical in the United States are sessions that run up to eight hours and have 10-25 people with two trainers leading the discussion and roleplays. Areas covered in a session include:
· History and philosophy of nonviolence, including role plays on the use of nonviolence and nonviolent responses to violence.
· Roleplays and exercises in consensus decision making, conflict resolution, and quick decision making.
· A presentation of legal ramification of civil disobedience and discussion on noncooperation and bail solidarity.
· Exercises and discussion of the role of oppression in our society and the progressive movement.
· What is an affinity group and what are the roles within the group.
· A sharing of fears and feelings related to nonviolence and nonviolent action.
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. wrote that the philosophy and practice of nonviolence has six basic elements.
First, nonviolence is resistance to evil and oppression. It is a human way to fight.
Second, it does not seek to defeat or humiliate the opponent, but to win his/ her friendship and understanding.
Third, the nonviolent method is an attack on the forces of evil rather than against persons doing the evil. It seeks to defeat the evil and not the persons doing the evil and injustice.
Fourth, it is the willingness to accept suffering without retaliation.
Fifth, a nonviolent resister avoids both external physical and internal spiritual violence- not only refuses to shoot, but also to hate, an opponent. The ethic of real love is at the center of nonviolence.
Sixth, the believer in nonviolence has a deep faith in the future and the forces in the universe are seen to be on the side of justice.
ACT UP Direct Action Guidelines
History of Mass Nonviolent Action
Nonviolent Response to Personal Violence
Affinity Groups and Support
Steps Toward Making a Campaign
Consensus Decision Making
Legal Issues/Risking Arrest
Legal Flow Chart: What Happens in an Arrest and Your Decisions
Legal Terms: What They Mean
see also the following:
The Demonstrator's Manual (crucial)
Marshal Training Manual
Getting Arrested: Why do we do it?